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Missions To The Moon And Mars:
Has someone got there ahead of us?

Clearly defining America's role in space for the coming
century, former President Bush expressed a long-range
continuing course for human exploration on July 20, 1989 when
he said, "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space
Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space
endeavors. And next, for the next century, back to the moon,
back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a
journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned
mission to Mars. Each mission should and will lay the
groundwork for the next."

With those words, the President specified the goals contained
in the 1988 Presidential Directive on National Space Policy:
to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into
the solar system. Now the shape of human exploration of space
was clear.

Exploration of the moon and Mars will help us regain our
competitiveness and strengthen America's technological
foundations. It will be the catalyst to provide needed
initiatives and enthusiasm to stimulate our people in sciences
and engineering.

It provides the opportunity for international cooperation by
expressing a world space exploration initiative. It can be
built on current scientific initiatives and, coupled with new
objectives, sustain America's leadership in unlocking the
secrets of our planet and the universe.

The mission sequence of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI)
is now defined: Begin with Space Station Freedom in the
1990's; return to the lunar surface to establish permanent
colonies early in the 21st century, then use the lunar bases
as a soft-launch platform for the Mars missions.

SEI provides a framework from which various elements of and
approaches to human exploration of the moon and Mars may be
examined to determine where best to invest in high-leverage
innovative technologies to make major impacts on costs,
schedules and performance.

Information generated will be used as a data base to determine
the appropriate scope, schedule, and ultimate approach to be
used in implementing the program. Following an evolutionary
path over many years, transportation systems and habitats will
be designed to serve many generations of technicians and
colonists both on the moon and on Mars.

Space Station Freedom will provide the essential scientific
and technological foundation for later human missions to the
planets. Initially, crews will remain on the station for three
months, and research will focus upon understanding the various
mechanisms responsible for adaptation to weightlessness and
the physiological problems encountered upon return to Earth.
Later programs will extend space assignments to 180 days or
more and will include enhanced physiological countermeasures
for low gravity and radiation effects.

When the planetary exploration missions begin, Freedom will
become a transportation node where both lunar and Martian
vehicles will be assembled, tested, launched and recovered for
future missions.

The next logical evolution of the process would be
establishment of a permanent lunar base for scientific and
commercial exploitation of the lunar surface. Rovers and crews
could explore the geology and geophysics of the moon and
samples could be examined in the lunar laboratories.

The moon provides an ideal location, just three days away by
conventional propulsion, at which humans can learn to live and
work in an extraterrestrial environment with increasing
self-sufficiency, using local lunar resources to support
themselves.

The lunar outpost could both advance science and serve as a
testbed for validating critical mission systems, hardware,
technology, human capabilities, and operational techniques
that will be applied to future exploration.

Once the lunar outpost has verified the techniques and
demonstrated the systems, the first human expedition to Mars
will be launched if, indeed, it has not already been launched.
Missions to Mars will establish a Martian outpost with the
objective of conducting research and exploration of the solar
system's most Earth-like planet, expanding our understanding
of the solar system, and living and working in an
extraterrestrial environment with a high degree of self
reliance.

In 1989 and 1990, NASA used the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) to
fly the Magellan, Galileo and Ulysses planetary missions from
the shuttle. The IUS has put NASA's scientific programs back
on track earlier and more cost effectively than any other
alternative approach.

In eight months Magellan mapped 90% of the surface of Venus,
using advanced radar to penetrate the planet's thick,
poisonous clouds with a resolution 10 times greater than any
before achieved.

Galileo will orbit Jupiter and its moons for two years after a
slingshot trip from Earth lasting six years. The spacecraft
and a probe sent into the Jovian atmosphere will provide
scientific information and possible clues about how the solar
system was formed.

Ulysses left Earth orbit to explore the polar regions of our
Sun. Its sophisticated instruments will measure complex
physical processes as well as unexpected phenomena to better
understand the formations and deaths of stars.

The capability offered by the IUS to perform NASA missions
provides an attractive and cost-effective solution for
accomplishing the planetary programs. The system is safe and
reliable and is compatible with the entire shuttle fleet and
requires no orbiter modifications. All of the necessary
resources and assets (engineers, technicians, hardware, etc.)
are in place and available to support the planetary missions.

A cooperative plan has been established with the USAF to
provide IUS units from inventory with paybacks to the Air
Force with new units as they are produced. This results in
NASA being able to conduct its missions on an efficient
schedule, while the USAF benefits by replacing existing IUS
units with new ones. This assures that previously procured
nits will fly well within their designated shelf life.

(Source: Boeing Aerospace, POB 3999, Seattle, WA 98124-2499).

While exploratory craft may secretly be in lunar orbit at the
present time, it seems unlikely that Cascade Engines have been
developed to propel large payloads of crews and materials out
of Earth orbit at speeds greater than 18,000 to 25,000 miles
per hour. If it were otherwise, government agencies would have
them available for use on vehicles scheduled for missions to
the several planets of this solar system and beyond.

If Cascade Engines are available, why is NASA spending
millions of hard-won dollars on obsolete technology (IUS,
shuttles, multi-stage boosters) and unusable hardware that
would eat up their annual budget while producing only
short-term benefits? Despite the Presidential Referendum on
Space Exploration, NASA still must rely upon a budget
committee for funding of current and future missions. Missions
that produce only a few short-term results are usually
relegated to file 13 and will not be funded for the next
fiscal year.

Placing satellites and other hardware into Earth orbit or into
deep space with the STS (shuttle) program is, without
question, the most expensive and time-consuming method of
accomplishing the task.

Certainly if NASA had a better, faster, less expensive way of
achieving the same results, they would utilize it. That they
do not is evidence enough that alternative engines such as
those reported on UFOs do not yet exist.

In 1989-1990 NASA utilized IUS systems because direct flights
were not achievable using any existing alternative system. If
they are available now were they built from alien technology?
Probably not.

This information is provided as a public service, but we cannot guarantee that the information is current or accurate. Readers should verify the information before acting on it.